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Spanish Civil War
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The original is unfortunately split down the face;—and was painted on panel, though sergeant-major of the Forces in the civil wars under Charles I. ; and a smaller silver mace of the bailiffs of Dunwich, date about , exhibited by the Rev. Small silver pix or reliquary, of Spanish work, set with four large pearls and.
Within three days, the rebels captured Morocco, much of northern Spain, and several key cities in the south. The Republicans and the Nationalists, as the rebels were called, then proceeded to secure their respective territories by executing thousands of suspected political opponents. Meanwhile, Franco flew to Morocco and prepared to bring the Army of Africa over to the mainland. In , Spanish King Alfonso XIII authorized elections to decide the government of Spain, and voters overwhelmingly chose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a liberal republic.
Alfonso went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, was proclaimed. During the first two years of the Republic, organized labor and leftist radicals forced widespread liberal reforms, and the independence-minded region of Catalonia and the Basque provinces achieved virtual autonomy. The landed aristocracy, the church and a large military clique opposed the Republic, and in November conservative forces regained control of the government in elections.
In response, socialists launched a revolution in the mining districts of Asturias, and Catalan nationalists rebelled in Barcelona.
But the country was marked by a highly uneven socio-economic development. Industry was almost exclusively confined to the north and northeast, the Basque Country and Catalonia; in the south, a few thousand landowners held over two-thirds of the land while , landless day labourers eked out a living on near-starvation wages. These southern estates contrasted in turn with the small farmers of the north and northwest, working on plots too small to provide more than the means of subsistence.
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Anarchism in Spain has historically gained much support and influence, especially before Francisco Franco ‘s victory in the Spanish Civil War of —, when it played an active political role and is considered the end of the golden age of classical anarchism. There were several variants of anarchism in Spain, namely expropriative anarchism in the period leading up to the conflict, the peasant anarchism in the countryside of Andalusia ; urban anarcho-syndicalism in Catalonia , particularly its capital Barcelona ; and what is sometimes called “pure” anarchism in other cities such as Zaragoza.
However, these were complementary trajectories and had many ideological similarities. Early on, the success of the anarchist movement was sporadic. Anarchists would organize a strike and ranks would swell. Usually, repression by police reduced the numbers again, but at the same time further radicalized many strikers. This cycle helped lead to an era of mutual violence at the beginning of the 20th century in which armed anarchists and pistoleros , armed men paid by company owners, were both responsible for political assassinations.
General strikes became common, and large portions of the Spanish working class adopted anarchist ideas. There also emerged a small individualist anarchist movement based on publications such as Iniciales and La Revista Blanca. At the same time, a far-reaching social revolution spread throughout Spain, where land and factories were collectivized and controlled by the workers.
All remaining social reforms ended in with the victory of Franco, who had thousands of anarchists executed. Resistance to his rule never entirely died, with resilient militants participating in acts of sabotage and other direct action after the war, and making several attempts on the ruler’s life.
Spanish Civil War breaks out
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They resulted in thousands of jailed anarchists and site a wounded movement. But to the world, the Resistance had become criminals, for Franco made the laws, even if, when dealing with political opponents, he chose to break the laws established by the constitution; and the world still regards us as criminals. Anarchism gained a much larger following in Barcelona, already a bastion of proletarian rebellion, Luddism, and trade unionism.
General strikes became common, and large portions of the Spanish working class adopted anarchist ideas. These centers of revolutionary activity continued to spread ideas, through speeches, discussions, meetings, and their newspaper, La Solidaridad English translation: Solidarity. While it would be false to say that the CNT was entirely anarchist, the prevailing sentiment undoubtedly leaned in that direction. The FAI was militantly revolutionary, with actions including bank robberies to acquire funds, and the organization of general strikes, but at times became more opportunist.
Anarchism in Spain
Spanish Civil War , —39 , military revolt against the Republican government of Spain , supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigades , composed of volunteers from Europe and the United States.
The military coup of July against the Republican government of Spain, which rapidly developed into civil war, required an urgent response from the.
In the course of his career as philosopher, social theorist, essayist, cultural and aesthetic critic, educator, politician and editor of the influential journal, Revista de Occidente , he has written on a broad range of themes and issues. In addition to these books, he also wrote hundreds of essays and newspaper and magazine articles, the most important of which are collected in twelve volumes, several of which have been translated into English, French and German.
His major writings reveal an intellectual development that traversed the life-world experiences articulated in the perspectives of phenomenology, historicism and existentialism. Through these intellectual orientations, Ortega became concerned with the epistemological status of historical knowledge, and approached the critical philosophy of history as the interpenetration of philosophical and historical attitudes. Critical philosophy of history thus refers to the position that characterizes the world we know and in which we act as a product of human activity and mind.
He challenged positivist approaches to history and contributed an important aspect to the modern concept of history: the tenet that there is connection and meaning in human history which emanates from a principle of continuity inherent in individual human lives. His mother was the daughter of Eduardo Gasset y Artime, founder of El Imparcial , the eminent liberal daily newspaper; Ortega divided his time between creative writing and serving as the editor of the family enterprise from to He remained in Deusto, studying philosophy, letters, and law, until May 13, , when he was awarded distinction in his first-year examinations at the University of Salamanca.
Miguel de Unamuno, an eminent figure in Spanish intellectual circles and dean of the faculty, served on the panel of examiners. The following year, Ortega transferred to the Central University of Madrid from which he received his licenciatura in philosophy and letters in June , and his doctorate in December He wrote his thesis on The Terrors of the Year One Thousand in which an early interest in a general interpretive approach to history, with a view toward the sociological manifestations of a historical period, became evident.
While at the Central University of Madrid, Ortega developed a close friendship with Ramiro de Maeztu with whom he shared an enthusiasm for Nietzsche’s philosophy. In , the year prior to his departure for Germany, Ortega wrote his first article for the El Imparcial , the family newspaper, on the Belgian poet Maurice Maeterlinck.
Spanish Civil War ends
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He was followed in May by Juan Negrín, also a socialist, who remained premier throughout the remainder of the war and served as premier.
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China’s longevity hangs in the balance, locked in a vicious civil war between the Kuomintang and Communists.
How the Republic was Lost
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In Spain, the Republican defenders of Madrid raise the white flag over the city, bringing to an end the bloody three-year Spanish Civil War. In , Spanish King Alfonso XIII approved elections to decide the government of Spain, and voters overwhelmingly chose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a liberal republic. Alfonso subsequently went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, was proclaimed.
During the first five years of the Republic, organized labor and leftist radicals forced widespread liberal reforms, and the independence-minded Spanish regions of Catalonia and the Basque provinces achieved virtual autonomy. The landed aristocracy, the church, and a large military clique increasingly employed violence in their opposition to the Second Republic, and in July General Francisco Franco led a right-wing army revolt in Morocco, which prompted the division of Spain into two key camps: the Nationalists and the Republicans.
Germany and Italy aided Franco with an abundance of planes, tanks, and arms, while the Soviet Union aided the Republican side. In addition, small numbers of communists and other radicals from France, the USSR, America, and elsewhere formed the International Brigades to aid the Republican cause. The most significant contribution of these foreign units was the successful defense of Madrid until the end of the war.
Later in the year, Franco mounted a major offensive against Catalonia. In January , its capital, Barcelona, was captured, and soon after the rest of Catalonia fell.
Communist Party of Spain
The PCE gained strength in the early s. It captured 17 legislative seats in , during the polarization of Spanish politics that preceded the Spanish Civil War — With the outbreak of civil war, the PCE grew rapidly, expanding from fewer than 1, members in and some 30, in to nearly 1,, in After Franco achieved victory in , the PCE went underground, and many of its leaders went into exile.
The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from to Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Popular Front.
It was the breeding ground for mass atrocities. About , people died as the result of systematic killings, mob violence, torture, or other brutalities. The fighting displaced millions of Spaniards. Some , refugees fled in to France, where many of them would be interned in camps. The Spanish Civil War began on July 17, , when generals Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco launched an uprising aimed at overthrowing the country’s democratically elected republic.
The Nationalist rebels’ initial efforts to instigate military revolts throughout Spain only partially succeeded. In rural areas with a strong right-wing political presence, Franco’s confederates generally won out. They quickly seized political power and instituted martial law. In other areas, particularly cities with strong leftist political traditions, the revolts met with stiff opposition and were often quelled.